J Med Assoc Thai. Nausea, Vomiting, Pregnancy, Ginger. Evidence-based approaches to managing nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Member Online last month year-old man seeking women ; Divorced Tehran , Iran dating Every Human being is a package of strengths and weaknesses, but to point good things, I should say:
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Total Assets 4 Net Income 7. Deposit Guarantee EUR. The exclusion criterion included: From December 10, to July 15, , a total of pregnant women that met the inclusion criterion, were selected from patients referring to the prenatal care center. After obtaining verbal informed consent, a routine pregnancy checkup was completed. Then the participants were divided into three groups ginger, placebo and control by using block randomization. All the subjects completed a questionnaire containing demographic information such as; age, age of marriage, gestational age, occupation, parity, wanted or unwanted pregnancy, and education level.
They were asked to avoid any kind of medication except for the one prescribed by the researcher. The participants were on this regimen for seven days. They were recommended to increase the number of meals with less volume, reduce high fat and high carbohydrate foods, avoid foods that trigger nausea and vomiting, and to start eating before they felt very hungry.
In addition, the participants were asked to avoid smoking, have a piece of dried bread when they woke up, refuse fried, odorous and spicy foods, avoid gas forming drinks, and maintain a suitable position. No intervention was made during the first three days and then both placebo and ginger groups received four days treatment.
The ginger group received ginger capsules and the placebo group received lactose capsules with a similar shape. They were instructed to seek other treatment if this treatment failed or the frequency of vomiting exceeded five times a day. Every participant received 14 copies of the Rhodes Index form.
They also received instructions to complete the form every 12 hours, and to record the intensity of the signs nausea, vomiting, and retching. This form included eight items that described the signs using a Likert scale ranging from mild zero to very severe four with a maximum total score of The patient evaluated the syndrome every 12 hours on a 5-point scale This instrument has been used previously in several researches in Iran 8 , 22 , and in other countries 23 , Every participant in the ginger group received twelve mg ginger capsules produced by Gol Daro Co.
They were instructed to take three capsules per day, for four days. Similar instructions were given to the placebo group. The researcher contacted every participant twice during the study. Once on the fourth day to answer the women's questions in the three groups and to ask them to start the recommended method.
Then again on the seventh day to thank the participants for their participation in the study and to request that they return the Rhodes Index forms for evaluation of their responses to the treatment. NVP was evaluated using the Rhodes Index scores. The hypothesis tested was whether ginger resulted in a reduction of nausea, vomiting and retching symptoms. These were indicated by a mean reduction of Rhodes Index scores.
Eligible women consented to participate in this study. The benefits, risks and effectiveness of the new intervention were described for the women. The privacy of the women and their personal information were protected during the study.
The women were asked to start a medication if the advised treatment failed, or vomiting was more than five times per day. The women were informed about the results at the end of the study.
Results were calculated by the mean Rhodes Index scores in the pre-intervention three days before the intervention , minus the mean Rhodes Index scores in the post intervention four days after the intervention , and then compared in the three groups by an ANOVA test.
We checked the normal distribution of variables. A Chi-square test was performed for the qualitative variables. To determine the sample size, a pilot study was conducted on 10 subjects in the ginger and placebo groups, the mean reduction of Rhodes Index scores in the ginger and placebo groups were 7. All of the women were included in the intention to treat ITT analysis. During the study, pregnant women were screened, and among them, women were recruited, and were excluded from the study.
In the ginger group, one woman had heartburn when she took the ginger capsules, one woman used other medication and one woman did not return to the clinic. In the placebo group, two women used other medications and two women did not return to the clinic.
In the control group, five women used other medications and two women did not return to the clinic. These women were excluded from the study. Finally, there were 37 women in the ginger, 36 in the placebo, and 33 in the control groups. Analyses were performed on a total of women Figure 1.
We compared the mean reduction Rhodes Index scores between the three groups. The resulting scores were significantly greater in the ginger group than in the placebo and control groups. An ANCOVA test covariance test showed that after controlling for the effects of age of marriage and wanted or unwanted pregnancy there were still significant differences in the mean scores of the Rhodes Index after the intervention in the three groups.
In this study, we determined the effect of ginger on nausea, vomiting and retching during the first 15 weeks of pregnancy using Rhodes Index forms. There are many studies that have provided information on both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the management of this condition.
Varieties of visual analogue scores, self-reporting tools and Rhodes Index forms 8 , 22 - 24 have been used for the assessment of NVP in previous studies.
However, in this study we used Rhodes Index forms. Since the age of marriage and wanted or unwanted pregnancy might influence the results, these variables were controlled by an ANCOVA test. After controlling for these variables, we found a significant reduction in the symptoms of nausea and vomiting in the three groups, although the improvement of nausea and vomiting in the ginger group was statistically greater than in the placebo group.
Ozgoli found that ginger was an effective herbal remedy for decreasing nausea and vomiting, and most of the women in the ginger group reported an improvement in their nausea symptoms during pregnancy When all creation and destruction are extinguished That ultimate stillness nirvana is true bliss.
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