Retrieved 7 January The New York Review of Books.
Qatar is either a constitutional   or an absolute monarchy   ruled by the Al Thani family.
Laws and decrees proposed by the Council of Ministers are referred to the Advisory Council Majilis Al Shura for discussion after which they are submitted to the Emir for ratification.
Qatari law does not permit the establishment of political bodies or trade unions. According to Qatar's Constitution, Sharia law is the main source of Qatari legislation,   although in practice, Qatar's legal system is a mixture of civil law and Sharia law.
In some cases, Sharia-based family courts treat a female's testimony as being worth half that of a man. Islamic polygyny is permitted. Judicial corporal punishment is common in Qatar due to the Wahhabi interpretation of Sharia Law, although in Qatar it had originally been a Hanbali school of mainstream Sunnism.
Flogging is employed as a punishment for alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations. It is unknown if the sentences were implemented. Alcohol consumption is partially legal in Qatar; some five-star luxury hotels are allowed to sell alcohol to their non-Muslim customers. Non-Muslim expatriates can obtain a permit to purchase alcohol for personal consumption.
The Qatar Distribution Company a subsidiary of Qatar Airways is permitted to import alcohol and pork; it operates the one and only liquor store in the country, which also sells pork to holders of liquor licences. Until , restaurants on the Pearl-Qatar a man-made island near Doha were allowed to serve alcoholic drinks. In , a modesty campaign was launched to remind tourists of the country's restrictive dress code. Men were warned against wearing only shorts and singlets.
According to the U. State Department , expatriate workers from nations throughout Asia and parts of Africa voluntarily migrate to Qatar as low-skilled labourers or domestic servants, but some subsequently face conditions indicative of involuntary servitude.
Some of the more common labour rights violations include beatings, withholding of payment, charging workers for benefits for which the employer is responsible, restrictions on freedom of movement such as the confiscation of passports, travel documents, or exit permits , arbitrary detention, threats of legal action, and sexual assault.
As of [update] , certain provisions of the Qatari Criminal Code allows punishments such as flogging and stoning to be imposed as criminal sanctions. Use of the death penalty is rare and no state executions have taken place in Qatar since Under the provisions of Qatar's sponsorship law, sponsors have the unilateral power to cancel workers' residency permits, deny workers' ability to change employers, report a worker as "absconded" to police authorities, and deny permission to leave the country.
Qatar commissioned international law firm DLA Piper to produce a report investigating the immigrant labour system. In May DLA Piper released over 60 recommendations for reforming the kafala system including the abolition of exit visas and the introduction of a minimum wage which Qatar has pledged to implement.
In May , Qatari officials declared their intention to allow the establishment of an independent trade union. In October Qatar's Emir signed into law new reforms to the country's sponsorship system, with the new law taking effect within one year. The country enfranchised women at the same time as men in connection with the elections for a Central Municipal Council. As a small country with larger neighbours, Qatar seeks to project influence and protect its state and ruling dynasty.
Between and , Qatar sought formal protection from the high transitory powers of the Ottomans, British, the Al-Khalifas from Bahrain, the Arabians, and the Wahhabis from Saudi Arabia. It is a member of the Arab League. The country has not accepted compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction.
Qatar also has bilateral relationships with a variety of foreign powers. Qatar is a strategic ally of China , with relationship between the two countries growing stronger. Qatar has mixed relations with its neighbours in the Persian Gulf region. Qatar signed a defence co-operation agreement with Iran,  with whom it shares the largest single non-associated gas field in the world.
It was the second nation, the first being France, to have publicly announced its recognition of the Libyan opposition 's National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya amidst the Libyan civil war. In , Qatar's relations with Bahrain , Saudi Arabia , and the United Arab Emirates came to a boiling point over Qatar's support for the Muslim Brotherhood  and reportedly funding extremist groups in Syria. In recent years, Qatar has been using Islamist militants in a number of countries including Egypt, Syria, Libya, Somalia and Mali to further its foreign policy.
Courting Islamists from the Muslim Brotherhood to Salafist groups has served as a power amplifier for the country, as it believes since the beginning of the Arab Spring that these groups represented the wave of the future.
Treasury, said that Qatar is a "permissive jurisdiction for terrorist financing. Qatar supported the democratically elected President Mohamed Morsi with diplomatic support and the state-owned Al Jazeera network before he was deposed in a military coup led by Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. Qatar's alignment with Hamas , first reported in early ,  has drawn criticism from Israel, the United States, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, "who accuse Qatar of undermining regional stability by supporting Hamas.
Qatar has hosted academic, religious, political, and economic conferences. The 11th annual Doha Forum recently brought in key thinkers, professionals of various backgrounds, and political figures from all over the world to discuss democracy, media and information technology, free trade, and water security issues.
In addition, the forum has featured the Middle East Economic Future conference since Notable among these include the Darfur Agreement. The Doha Declaration is the basis of the peace process in Darfur and it has achieved significant gains on the ground for the African region.
Notable achievements included the restoration of security and stability, progress made in construction and reconstruction processes, return of displaced residents and uniting of Darfur people to face challenges and push forward the peace process. In June , Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, Egypt and Yemen broke diplomatic ties with Qatar, accusing Qatar of supporting terrorism ,  escalating a dispute over Qatar's support of the Muslim Brotherhood , considered a terrorist organization by those 5 Arab nations.
Qatari troops were also removed from the military coalition in Yemen. Egypt closed its airspace and seaports to all Qatari transportation. In June , Saudi Arabia announced a bid to construct a waterway, Salwa Canal , on their border with Qatar which shall in effect turn the latter into an island country.
The Qatar Armed Forces are the military forces of Qatar. The country maintains a modest military force of approximately 11, men, including an army 8, , navy 1, and air force 1, Qatar's defense expenditures accounted for approximately 4. The presence of the large Al Udeid Air Base , operated by the United States and several other UN nations, provides a guaranteed source of defense and national security. Orders in for 62 tanks and 24 self-propelled guns from Germany were followed in by a number of other contracts, including 24 combat helicopters and 3 early-warning-and-control aircraft from the US, and 2 tanker aircraft from Spain.
Qatar's military participated in the Saudi Arabian—led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis. In , Al Jazeera America reported: Since , Qatar has been divided into eight municipalities Arabic: For statistical purposes, the municipalities are further subdivided into 98 zones as of [update] ,  which are in turn subdivided into blocks.
Most of the country consists of a low, barren plain , covered with sand. There are mild winters and very hot, humid summers. The Jebel Dukhan area also contains Qatar's main onshore oil deposits , while the natural gas fields lie offshore, to the northwest of the peninsula.
Qatar signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June , and became a party to the convention on 21 August For two decades, Qatar has had the highest per-capita carbon dioxide emissions in the world, at In Qatar launched its National Vision which highlights environmental development as one of the four main goals for Qatar over the next two decades. The National Vision pledges to develop sustainable alternatives to oil-based energy to preserve the local and global environment.
Before the discovery of oil, the economy of the Qatari region focused on fishing and pearl hunting. A report prepared by local governors of Ottoman Empire in states that total income from pearl hunting in is 2,, kran. Oil was discovered in Qatar in , in Dukhan Field. Now, the country has a high standard of living for its legal citizens.
With no income tax , Qatar along with Bahrain is one of the countries with the lowest tax rates in the world. The unemployment rate in June was 0. In , Qatar retained its title of richest country in the world according to per capita income for the third time in a row, having first overtaken Luxembourg in Its population stood at 1.
Established in , Qatar Investment Authority is the country's sovereign wealth fund , specializing in foreign investment. Qatar Holding is the international investment arm of QIA. The country has no taxes, but authorities have announced plans to levy taxes on junk food and luxury items. The taxes would be implemented on goods that harm the human body — for example fast food, tobacco products, and soft drinks.
The rollout of these initial taxes is believed to be due to the fall in oil prices and a deficit that the country faced in Additionally, the country has seen job cuts in from its petroleum companies and other sectors in the government. As a result, it is the richest state per-capita in the world.
Qatar's economy was in a downturn from to OPEC quotas on crude oil production, the lower price for oil , and the generally unpromising outlook on international markets reduced oil earnings. In turn, the Qatari government's spending plans had to be cut to match lower income. The resulting recessionary local business climate caused many firms to lay off expatriate staff.
With the economy recovering in the s, expatriate populations, particularly from Egypt and South Asia, have grown again. However, large natural gas reserves have been located off Qatar's northeast coast. Further phases of North Field gas development costing billions of dollars are in various stages of planning and development. All these industries use gas for fuel. The US is the major equipment supplier for Qatar's oil and gas industry, and US companies are playing a major role in North Field gas development.
Qatar's National Vision has made investment in renewable resources a major goal for the country over the next two decades. Growing numbers of foreign-educated Qataris, including many educated in the US, are returning home to assume key positions formerly occupied by expatriates.
To control the influx of expatriate workers, Qatar has tightened the administration of its foreign manpower programmes over the past several years. Security is the principal basis for Qatar's strict entry and immigration rules and regulations. With a fast-expanding population and substantial economic growth over the past decade, a reliable and extensive transportation network is becoming increasingly necessary within Qatar.
So far the government, the primary transport developer, has done well in terms of keeping up with demand for new transportation options.
In the Public Works Authority Ashghal , one of the bodies that oversees infrastructure development, underwent a major reorganisation in order to streamline and modernise the authority in preparation for major project expansions across all segments in the near future.
Ashghal works in tandem with the Urban Planning and Development Authority UPDA , the body that designed the transportation master plan, instituted in March and running to As driving is the primary mode of transport in Qatar, the road network is a major focus of the plan.
Project highlights in this segment include the multibillion-dollar Doha Expressway and the Qatar Bahrain Causeway , which will connect Qatar to Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and is considered a milestone in regional interconnectivity.
Mass-transit options, such as a Doha metro , light-rail system and more extensive bus networks, are also under development to ease road congestion. In addition, the railway system is being significantly expanded and could eventually form an integral part of a GCC-wide network linking all the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.
The airport, too, is expanding capacity to keep up with rising visitor numbers. Hamad International Airport is the international airport of Doha. In replaced the former Doha International Airport as Qatar's principal airport.
In , the airport was named the 50th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic , serving 37,, passengers, a Construction of the port began in ; it became operational in December The number of people in Qatar fluctuates considerably depending on the season, since the country relies heavily on migrant labour.
The combined number of South Asians from the countries of the Indian subcontinent including Sri Lanka by themselves represent over 1. Among these, Indians are the largest community, numbering , in ,  followed by , Nepalis , , Bangladeshis , , Sri Lankans , and , Pakistanis.
Qatar's first demographic records date back to , and were conducted by Ottoman governors in the region. Based on this census, which includes only the residents in cities, the total population in was 9, Projections released by Qatar Statistical Authority indicates that the total population of Qatar could reach 2. Qatar's National Development Strategy —16 had estimated that the country's population would reach 1. But the country's population has soared to 1. Religion in Qatar  .
Islam is Qatar's predominant religion and is the official status although not the only religion practiced in the country. The Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners. Since , Christians have been allowed to build churches on ground donated by the government,  though foreign missionary activity is officially discouraged. Arabic is the official language of Qatar, with Qatari Arabic the local dialect. Qatari Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. English is commonly used as a second language,  and a rising lingua franca , especially in commerce, to the extent that steps are being taken to try to preserve Arabic from English's encroachment.
In the medical community, and in situations such as the training of nurses to work in Qatar, English acts as a lingua franca . However, in December , the French daily Le Monde revealed that Qatar, which has very few native French speakers, had not yet paid any contribution to the OIF,  while the outgoing Administrator of the OIF complained in that Qatar had not kept any of the promises it made when it joined the organisation and had never paid its annual membership fees.
Qatar's culture is similar to other countries in Eastern Arabia , being significantly influenced by Islam. Qatar National Day , hosted annually on 18 December, has had an important role in developing a sense of national identity.
Several senior members of Qatar's ruling Al Thani family are noted collectors of Islamic and contemporary art. The Museum of Islamic Art , opened in , is regarded as one of the best museums in the region. Qatar is the world's biggest buyer in the art market by value. The National Museum of Qatar is currently under construction, located across from the Corniche in the Qatari capital Doha. It was originally scheduled to open in  but its opening was pushed back to 28 March Qatari literature traces its origins back to the 19th century.
Originally, written poetry was the most common form of expression. Abdul Jalil Al-Tabatabai and Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Uthaymeen, two poets dating back to the early 19th century, formed the corpus of Qatar's earliest written poetry.
Poetry later fell out of favor after Qatar began reaping the profits from oil exports in the midth century and many Qataris abandoned their Bedouin traditions in favor of more urban lifestyles. Due to the increasing number of Qataris who began receiving formal education during the s and other significant societal changes, witnessed the introduction of the first short story anthology, and in the first locally authored novels were published.
Poetry, particularly the predominant nabati form, retained some importance but would soon be overshadowed by other literary types. Qatar's media was classified as "not free" in the Freedom of the Press report by Freedom House.
It has been reported that journalists practice self-censorship , particularly in regards to the government and ruling family of Qatar. According to article 46 of the press law "The Emir of the state of Qatar shall not be criticised and no statement can be attributed to him unless under a written permission from the manager of his office.
In , a Cybercrime Prevention Law was passed. The law is said to restrict press freedom, and carries prison sentences and fines for broad reasons such as jeopardising local peace or publishing false news. Press media has undergone expansion in recent years. There are currently seven newspapers in circulation in Qatar , with four being published in Arabic and three being published in English.
In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Qatar is the highest ranked Middle Eastern country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index NRI — an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.
Qatar ranked number 23 overall in the NRI ranking, unchanged from The music of Qatar is based on Bedouin poetry, song and dance. Traditional dances in Doha are performed on Friday afternoons; one such dance is the Ardah , a stylised martial dance performed by two rows of dancers who are accompanied by an array of percussion instruments , including al-ras a large drum whose leather is heated by an open fire , tambourines and cymbals with small drums.
Association football is the most popular sport in Qatar, both in terms of players and spectators. It was the second time Qatar had hosted the tournament, with the other instance being the edition. Qatar's winning bid for the World Cup was greeted enthusiastically in the Persian Gulf region as it was the first time a country in the Middle East had been selected to host the tournament. However, the bid has been embroiled in much controversy, including allegations of bribery and interference in the investigation of the alleged bribery.
European football associations have also objected to the World Cup being held in Qatar for a variety of reasons, from the impact of warm temperatures on players' fitness, to the disruption it might cause in European domestic league calendars should the event be rescheduled to take place during winter.
The Guardian , a British national daily newspaper, produced a short documentary named "Abuse and exploitation of migrant workers preparing emirate for ". Though football is the most popular sport, other team sports have experienced considerable success at senior level.
In , the national handball team emerged as runners-up to France in the World Men's Handball Championship as hosts, however the tournament was marred by numerous controversies regarding the host nation and its team. Since , Qatar has hosted the annual Tour of Qatar , a cycling race in six stages. Every February, riders are racing on the roads across Qatar's flat land for six days.
The Qatar Army Skydiving Team has several different skydiving disciplines placing among the top nations in the world.
Doha one time Host Asian Volleyball Championship. The illiteracy rate in Qatar was 3. Education City is also home to a fully accredited international Baccalaureate school, Qatar Academy. In addition, two Canadian institutions, the College of the North Atlantic headquarters in Newfoundland and Labrador and the University of Calgary , have inaugurated campuses in Doha.
Other for-profit universities have also established campuses in the city. In , Qatar was ranked third from the bottom of the 65 OECD countries participating in the PISA test of maths, reading and skills for and year-olds, comparable to Colombia or Albania, despite having the highest per capita income in the world. Al-Bairaq was launched in aims to provide high school students with an opportunity to experience a research environment in the Center for Advanced Materials in Qatar University.
The program encompasses the STEM fields and languages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 January For other places with the same name, see Qatar disambiguation.
Sovereign state in Western Asia. Location and extent of Qatar dark green on the Arabian Peninsula. Human rights in Qatar. Foreign relations of Qatar. Arabian oryx , the national animal of Qatar. Retrieved 4 March Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics.
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This page provides the latest reported value for - Qatar Government Bond 10y - plus previous releases, historical high and low, short-term forecast and long-term prediction, economic calendar, survey consensus and news.
Qatar Government Bond 10y - actual data, historical chart and calendar of releases - was last updated on January of Country Last Previous Range Argentina 6. Qatar Gold Reserves at Qatar Repo Rate at 2. Qatar Gross Fixed Capital Formation at Qatar Changes in Inventories at Qatar Government Budget at Qatar GDP Deflator at Qatar Building Permits at