But on a return trip, pick a neighbourhood and go deep. The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of [update] ;  while in , 43, licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Explore any destination in New York City. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network , founded in
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A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, , receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide. The Bronx River , which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County , is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan , with developments such as Battery Park City in the s and s. The city's total area is New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the saltbox style Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to , to the modern One World Trade Center , the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost.
Manhattan's skyline , with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world.
These include the Woolworth Building , an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in , for 17 years it was the world's tallest building. The Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size , to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.
The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from to In neighborhoods such as Riverdale in the Bronx , Ditmas Park in Brooklyn , and Douglaston in Queens , large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.
Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of In the s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. According to the United States Geological Survey , an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed.
Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs , and in turn, there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character to call their own.
Winters are cold and damp. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity.
Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of The city receives Average winter snowfall between and has been Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.
See or edit raw graph data. Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26, acres 10, Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn , part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village , as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.
It also houses the th Transportation Brigade, the nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens.
New York City is the most populous city in the United States,  with an estimated record high of 8,, residents as of [update] ,  incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the United States Census.
Throughout its history, the city has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States; more than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between and By , Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish , Jews , and Italians. Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.
Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2. Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65, each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60, people. Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55, and 35,, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30, total in Central Asians , primarily Uzbek Americans , are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,, and including over half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States,  most settling in Queens or Brooklyn.
Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly , individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest. Dynes , author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality , wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June Stonewall riots.
New York City has a high degree of income disparity as indicated by its Gini Coefficient of 0. New York is a global hub of business and commerce. The city is a major center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media , traditional media , advertising , legal services , accountancy , insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley , metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand.
The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in , over 6. Many Fortune corporations are headquartered in New York City,  as are a large number of multinational corporations.
One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment, although the city's garment industry is showing a resurgence in Brooklyn. New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U. The city's securities industry, enumerating , jobs in August , continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in for 5 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.
Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange , on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ , at Broadway , representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges , respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.
Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over million square feet Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries  involving the Internet , new media , telecommunications , digital media , software development , biotechnology , game design , financial technology " FinTech " , and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments.
High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines ,  New York's intellectual capital , and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.
The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, , then Mayor Michael R. Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development ,  appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not.
The song is the state song of New York. Patrick's Day parade ; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival ; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry , with many films , television series, books, and other media being set there. New York City is additionally a center for the advertising , music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America.
Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere. More than newspapers and consumer magazines have an office in the city,  and the publishing industry employs about 25, people. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The Village Voice , historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.
The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media ,  that has produced several original Emmy Award -winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government.
WBAI , with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network , founded in WNYC , a public radio station owned by the city until , has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx. Over , students are enrolled in New York City's over higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the United States and higher than other major global cities like London  and Tokyo ,  including over half million in the City University of New York CUNY system alone in The city also has other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St.
Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of [update] ;  while in , 43, licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than languages.
Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the s. In , New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U. Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD,  including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory.
A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia , dominated by the Five Families , as well as in gangs , including the Black Spades. The New York City Fire Department FDNY , provides fire protection , technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City.
In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures , there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires.
New York is also home to one of the largest subway systems in the world, consisting of hundreds of miles of tunnel with electrified track. New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by the diplomatic consulates of Iceland  and Latvia  and by New York's Baruch College. Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance , which established the African-American literary canon in the United States.
New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism also known as the New York School in painting; and hip hop ,  punk , salsa , freestyle , Tin Pan Alley , certain forms of jazz , and along with Philadelphia disco in music.
New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York City has more than 2, arts and cultural organizations and more than art galleries of all sizes. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical.
Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart , George M. Cohan , and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals. Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway , the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square ,  also sometimes referred to as " The Great White Way ".
Attendance in — stood at New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites, many of which are internationally known.
Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history.
Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels , cheesecake , hot dogs , knishes , and delicatessens or delis to the city.
Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef , respectively. Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias , diners , and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4, mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs  examples of modern New York street food. The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin.
New York City is well known for its street parades , which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade,  beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store;  the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person.
Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan. The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect , alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English.
This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" Jersey , "Toidy-Toid Street" 33rd St.
The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect,  and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in The city has played host to over forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing leagues, both current and historic.
New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once Chicago in , St.
Louis in , and the San Francisco Bay Area in The Yankees have won a record 27 championships,  while the Mets have won the World Series twice. Both teams moved to California in The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market.
The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament , was held in New York in and remains in the city. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. The city also hosted the U. Open golf tournament and the and PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club.
Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.
The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with , and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong ,   London , Paris , Seoul ,   and Tokyo.
Public transport is essential in New York City. New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than stations and 20 rail lines. The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. New York City's public bus fleet is the largest in North America,  and the Port Authority Bus Terminal , the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7, buses and , commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
New York's airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport. The Staten Island Ferry is the world's busiest ferry route , carrying over 23 million passengers from July through June on the 5. Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass more than 12, yellow taxicabs ;  various competing startup transportation network companies ; and an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island.
Ride-sharing services have become significant competition for cab drivers in New York. Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development.
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