The Port of Galveston: The oil constant , an insider pun in the German industry, refers to that effect. Las once universidades participantes son: Es posible doctorarse en Alemania. Rockefeller in Ohio, became a multi-state trust and came to dominate the young petroleum industry in the U.
The existing ship channel was deepened following the Spindletop discovery and has been deepened several times since then. The university system in Texas improved dramatically because of the boom.
Before the boom, the University of Texas consisted of a small number of crude buildings near Austin. Primary and secondary education improved as well, though the extreme growth in the new boomtowns initially caused severe strain on school systems unprepared for the rapid influx of students. Even as money was rapidly flowing in the communities, obtaining tax revenue efficiently where it was needed was often complex. This type of school district is still the standard in Texas today.
One of the most significant developments in Texan government resulted from the creation of a state oil production tax in The revenue generated by the tax made funds available for development in the state without the need for income taxes and similar revenue mechanisms adopted in other states. Politics in Texas during the early s was defined by a spirit of Progressivism. In general, however, the attitude toward business was laissez-faire. There were few regulations on issues such as minimum wages and child labor.
The permissive attitude toward business did not always extend toward large corporations. Civic and business leaders, and even ordinary citizens, worried that the influx of capital from outside the state would lead to a loss of political power, revenue, and business opportunities. This sentiment led to a series of antitrust lawsuits by the state Attorney General starting in The lawsuits easily succeeded and limited the ability of outside investors, most notably Standard Oil, to gain control of the state oil companies.
The mistrust of Standard Oil was partially the result of a suspicion toward carpetbaggers , which ironically was also the source of skepticism regarding labor unions. Union organizers were frequently seen as attempting to support a Northern agenda of promoting opportunities for African Americans at the expense of the white population.
Because of the situation this created, labor reform was slow to develop. A History of Texas and the Texans. An enduring theme during and after the oil boom has been a reluctance among Texans to relinquish their identity and a stubbornness in maintaining their cultural heritage in the face of drastic changes to the state brought by the sudden wealth.
The possibility of becoming wealthy from oil created a " wildcatter " culture, a reckless, entrepreneurial spirit, in many areas of the state. Independent entrepreneurs chased dreams of wealth by purchasing land and equipment to find oil.
Ranchers and farmers, from both inside and outside of the state, turned to prospecting. Though many failed in their endeavors there were many success stories. The majority of the pioneering of and searching for new oilfields in this era was done by these independents, not big business interests.
Competition with large oil interests would lead to the establishment of the Independent Petroleum Association of Texas as a lobbying group for these small businessmen. Houston pioneered American car culture in the early s thanks to the ready availability of inexpensive gasoline.
By the s traffic congestion had become so serious that the city became the first in the nation to install interconnected traffic lights. Though mass transit had been successful in Houston's earlier years, later efforts aimed at promoting mass transit and urban planning were largely defeated in Houston because of opposition by the public, which favored public investment in roads over mass transit.
Another indirect effect of the boom was the growth of gambling and prostitution in many communities. These activities had not been uncommon in Texas before the boom, but the wealth brought by the oil industry, as well as difficulties in enhancing the laws and the law enforcement agencies, created many new opportunities for illegal businesses and organized crime.
The onset of Prohibition and the state government's reluctance to enforce vice laws only encouraged the growth of gambling and bootlegging during this period. The rapid social changes during this period, especially the s, led to the reemergence of the Ku Klux Klan in the urban centers of Texas, with their strongest presence in Dallas.
Bigotry, though, was never far from the group's agenda. The petroleum industry influenced long-term trends in Texas and American culture. Conservative views among the early business leaders in Texas led them to help finance the emergence of the modern Christian right and the American conservative movement. Although from the outset of the oil boom there were efforts at conservation and protection of the environment, they generally enjoyed little success.
The wildcatters not only wasted the valuable resource, but created avoidable environmental contamination with the numerous oil strikes. The rush to extract oil frequently led to the construction of poor storage facilities where leaks were common and water pollution became a serious issue. Parallel to this, the clearing of fields for oil exploration and the demand for lumber to be used in new construction, all of which followed major logging activities in the 19th century, destroyed most of the once dense forest lands in the state.
Industrial activities, which had little regulation, created substantial air pollution. The practice of burning off gas pockets in new oil fields was common, thus increasing the problem. As the Houston area came to be the most heavily industrialized area in the state, it accumulated the most serious air quality issues. By the s, airline pilots were able to use lines of haze in the air to navigate into the city.
Another serious effect created by the oil-related industries has been the pollution around the Houston Ship Channel and in Galveston Bay. Though industrial sources were major sources of pollution, urbanization around the bay also contributed significantly to pollution levels. In recent decades, most of the pollution in the bay is the result of storm run-off from various smaller commercial, agricultural, and residential sources, as opposed to the major industrial complexes.
By the s, production in the East Texas Oil Field and oil prices stabilized. World War II helped complete the state's transition to an industrialized and urbanized state with oil facilitating the transition. During the s and s, as a result of both production peaks in some nations and political instability in others, the world's supply of petroleum tightened leading to an energy crisis during the s and early s. Petroleum prices rose dramatically, greatly benefiting Texas, particularly as compared to other parts of the U.
A new economic boom emerged which, though not as transformative as the early s, pushed the population of Texas to the point that, by the end of the century, Texas was the second most populous state in the nation. Some sources, in fact, use the phrase Texas oil boom to refer to this later period rather than the earlier period that followed Spindletop.
Richardson , and Clint Murchison. Hunt's first successes were in the oilfields of Arkansas , but he lost most of his fortune by the outset of the Depression as overproduction depleted his fields and his speculation on land and oil drained his resources.
Hunt bought most of Joiner's interests in eastern Texas and his company, Placid Oil, owned hundreds of wells. He became established in Dallas and was labeled the richest man in the nation in by Fortune Magazine.
Richardson was a cattle trader who established an independent oil production business in Fort Worth in He was a very private man who was sometimes referred to as the "bachelor billionaire. He expanded his business into international oil and gas operations in Canada and Australia. His son Clint Jr. For their part, Murchison and Richardson were known to have been major national political operatives and had close ties to President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his vice president Richard M.
Nixon , as well as FBI chief J. Edgar Hoover and President Lyndon B. Other wealthy Texans involved in the oil industry, though not as influential, became well known, often as much for their eccentricities as their wealth.
Howard Hughes , son of Howard R. He became equally famous for his eccentricities and later mental decline, as well as his eventual heavy investments in Las Vegas gambling establishments. Glenn McCarthy was a modest oil worker who pioneered wells around what the Houston area. In , he struck oil at Anahuac near the Galveston Bay. Over the next decade, he made dozens of other strikes and quickly became one of Texas' richest men.
His love of bourbon led him to establish the WildCatter bourbon label. His excesses made him an unwilling national celebrity during the s and s as the media became enamored with tales of Texas oil wealth.
His lavish spending habits and his proclivity for amateur law enforcement were well known. Though the general public of the United States was aware of oil production in Texas, the wealth that it generated in the state for the first three decades after Spindletop was largely unknown.
By the late s, the national media began to report the extreme wealth of some Texans in magazines such as Life and Fortune.
The popular image was often characterized by a rough and combative personality, heavy drinking, and extravagant spending. In , the motion picture Giant helped to crystallize the image of Texans in the popular imagination as comical, eccentric figures.
Land of the Big Rich , also contributed to public perceptions of oil's influence in Texas and surrounding states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Texas Oil Boom. This article is about a period in the early s. For the boom in the s and 80s, see s Energy Crisis. The Lucas gusher at Spindletop , the first major gusher in Texas. As Texas in the s emerged from the prospect of an empire into one of the nation's dozen "imperial states" When will Texans become more like the rest of the nation?
Texas portal Houston portal Energy portal. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original PDF on July 20, Retrieved September 8, Weisman , p. Retrieved November 14, Understanding Regulation in America to the Mid-twentieth Century". Retrieved November 11, Midland, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved November 7, Texas State Historical Association.
Cotton Culture from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved October 17, Ranching from the Handbook of Texas Online. Dallas, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved October 19, Galveston Hurricane of from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved November 4, Galveston, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online.
Retrieved February 5, Retrieved December 12, Oil Exploration from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved November 5, Retrieved March 14, Spindletop Oilfield from the Handbook of Texas Online.
Retrieved October 18, Retrieved June 18, Texas in the s from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved October 24, Humble, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved October 20, Exxon Corporation from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved October 26, Retrieved November 9, State and Local Government Spending: Archived from the original on September 18, Lumber Industry from the Handbook of Texas Online.
Retrieved November 6, Odessa, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Wortham, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Kilgore, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online.
Breckenridge, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved October 21, Tyrrell Historical Library Digital Collections. Retrieved November 8, The building was the tallest structure between Houston and New Orleans when it was built in Greater Beaumont Chamber of Commerce.
Archived from the original on May 8, This story hotel was completed in at a cost of 1. It was designed by F. Steinman of Beaumont and was the tallest hotel building in Texas. The building has classical detailing such as decorative pilasters, detailed cornices and quoins. American Association of Port Authorities. Retrieved August 18, Highway Development from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved November 12, Port of Corpus Christi.
Archived from the original on September 21, From the mid's, the major portion of the tonnage moved through the Port shifted from cotton to petroleum and petroleum products. Retrieved October 25, Cullen Foundation from the Handbook of Texas Online.
Depot Museum, Henderson, Texas. Archived from the original on May 5, Archived from the original on April 2, Labor Organizations from the Handbook of Texas Online.
Beaumont, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Prostitution from the Handbook of Texas Online. Prohibition from the Handbook of Texas Online. Urbanization from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved July 13, Retrieved September 6, A los postulantes que no tengan conocimientos previos de la lengua japonesa se les recomienda incursionar en los estudios de la misma. Centro Argentino de Exbecarios www. Lunes a viernes de 9. Por medio del PEC-G entran en Brasil, anualmente, cerca de estudiantes extranjeros a los cuales se les ha facilitado el ingreso y vacantes gratuitas en carreras universitarias brasileras.
Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Tel La Convocatoria se puede consultar en: Estos programas especiales se pueden consultar en http: Estos cursos tienen la finalidad de entrenar a aquellos que puedan actuar como agentes de cambio en sus respectivas comunidades.
Para solicitar una beca los candidatos deben cumplir los siguientes requisitos: Pueden postularse a la Convocatoria General: Y presentarla en Avda. CP Buenos Aires. Esmeralda Piso 12, Buenos Aires, Horario: T 54 11 4 info solvazquez.
Las becas de Retama tienen dos destinatarios: Instituto Italiano de Cultura en Buenos Aires www. Con el cierre de la 5ta Convocatoria, en diciembre de , terminaron las convocatorias anuales para este Programa. Son de hasta 2. Los principales requisitos son: En su primera convocatoria, latinoamericanos 34 argentinos accedieron a la beca. Primera fecha de entrega 13 de Agosto con respuesta 20 de Septiembre. Si se quiere completar la solicitud ir a www.
Los requisitos para acceder a estas becas son: Se destinan a tres grandes grupos: Pueden consultarse las bases completas en www. Para para completar el formulario on line, registrarse en www. Estas becas se otorgan principalmente en lo que se conoce como "liberal arts colleges" por lo que se recomienda que los candidatos elijan carreras dentro de las humanidades. Obteniendo una beca parcial o total para financiar tus estudios superiores en carreras de grado o masters.
Las becas se otorgan a estudiantes que deseen iniciar o continuar dichos estudios. Las actividades extracurriculares que hayas realizado, tus aspiraciones y tus gustos se evaluaran en su conjunto. Las condiciones de personalidad, intereses o experiencias de tu perfil pueden compensar cuestiones curriculares. El idioma no es problema Un tema que a veces preocupa a la hora de elegir cursar estudios en el extranjero es el idioma.
UU, con posibilidad de gestionar becas en cada una de ellas. University of Wisconsin- Stevens Point Ofrece becas parciales sobre la cuota a estudiantes internacionales calificados.
Los interesados pueden visitar http: Marcus Fang, Foreign Student Office mfang uwsp. Todos los estudiantes pueden aplicar adicionalmente a trabajos dentro del campus de hasta 20 horas semanales. De lo contrario, dirigirse a: Para inscripciones dirigirse a la Universidad de Newcastle, Callaghan N. El Fondo Panamericano Leo S. Tiene como objetivo facilitar el traslado de los participantes mediante el otorgamiento de descuentos en los parajes aereos: No debe realizarse en Agencias de Viaje.
El Gobierno de Quebec ofrece a estudiantes argentinos seleccionados 10 becas de derecho de escolaridad , que consisten en darle igual tratamiento que a los estudiantes canadienses.
Las becas de posgrado se entregan a egresados de universidades alemanas. Es sumamente importante que los candidatos posean profundas convicciones liberales. Las carreras, universidades y beneficios son semejantes al caso de los estudiantes iniciales. Las becas son completas: Masdar Institute ofrece los siguientes programas: Masdar Institute practica un "r olling admissions process ": Las becas consisten en: Requisitos y detalles de la convocatoria: Las once universidades participantes son: Bases y formularios en: Este programa se dirige a todos los graduados, doctorandos y posdocs extranjeros que deseen trabajar en uno de los institutos Leibniz que participan del programa.
Es posible doctorarse en Alemania. Hay dos tipos de becas: Hay 22 vacantes abiertas para la convocatoria actual. Hay 8 vacantes abiertas para la convocatoria actual. Las bases completas se encuentran publicadas en: Se puede acceder a las bases y los formularios en www. Mas info sobre el programa y formularios en: Las Instituciones que en la actualidad otorgan becas de estudio para carreras de grado en el IB son: Comienzo de las clases en el IB: Un jurado de especialistas es el encargado de elegir a los becarios.
El seguimiento de la beca se extiende hasta el momento en que el investigador aprueba su tesis doctoral. Consultar los cursos abiertos en la actualidad a: Fulbright Commission in Argentina, Viamonte , P. Paz San Martin, Pcia. Las becas son de dos modalidades: Las bases, condiciones y formularios pueden consultarse en www.
Las bases de la convocatoria se encuentran en: Los estudiantes internacionales que se postulan a para estudios de grado en esta universidad son considerados para varios tipos de becas. Todos los estudiantes que se inscriben en esta universidad son considerados para estas becas, no se requiere un formulario especial. WPI Office of Admissions, admissions wpi. Corrientes piso 1 - Buenos. Su arancel anual es de 18, DM aprox 9, dolares , pero dispone de becas para quienes no posean los medios economicos y tengan buenos antecedentes de estudios.
Para obtener mayor informacion deben dirigirse a: Consisten en montos variables de hasta 1. Box , Trieste, Italia, Fax: Se dicta durante Todos los Institutos participantes han acordado normas comunes, incluyendo un subsidio de subsistencia aproximadamente Las clases inician en Agosto. Pueden postularse tanto argentinos como extranjeros. Los valores para cada beca, por tipo de medio, son: El BID puede financiar hasta dos tercios de un proyecto determinado.
Las organizaciones locales son responsables de facilitar el resto de los recursos y dar apoyo al proyecto sobre una base sostenible. El programa considera la posibilidad de otorgamiento de becas en casos calificados. Los Leones , Santiago de Chile, Tel: Los temas a tratar son: Otro site con las bases en www.
Embajada de Francia en Argentina, Basavilbaso , C. Por consultas adicionales contactar a: Todos los otros cargos corren por cuenta del alumno. Entre los requisitos de los postulantes figuran: La beca incluye alojamiento y comida. El Centro de Estudios Financieros convoca anualmente a becas para Masters.
Los Masters ofrecidos son: Las solicitudes pueden bajarse de www. Office of Graduate Admissions, e-mail: La beca cubre el total de la cuota.
Contacto para ambos programas: El Council's Fred H. Esmeralda , pisos 19 y 20, Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Esmeralda Piso 12 Horario: Algunas cubren la totalidad del tuition Dean's Prize Scholarships y otras cubren un porcentaje del mismo Global Leadership Awards. Estas becas son para prestigiosas universidades en todo el mundo donde funciona un Rotary Center for International Studies.
Para los interesados en inscribirse a este programa, la Universidad ofrece becas completas y parciales. Pizzurno , 2 do piso of Tel: Para participar del concurso, son requisitos: Las becas consisten en 2.
Las bases completas de la convocatoria figuran en: Reuters Foundation, foundation reuters. John Ullmann, Executive Director. Hay una intensa agenda de actividades, entre las cuales: Son Sard Trust es un fondo instituido en memoria de Ma.
Se dirige a dos grupos: Los cursos son ofrecidos por las universidades participantes: Las becas cubren todos los costos: En el sitio argentino del British Council se encuentran publicadas las bases completas y los formularios. Detalles del programa y preguntas frecuentes en castellano: Entre los requisitos figuran: